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Quality of the 2004 soybean crop from the United States.

2004 was the nineteenth year that the American Soybean Association and Iowa State University surveyed the quality of soybeans produced in the U.S. Soybean growers were requested to send in a soybean sample for near-infrared (NIRS) analysis. These analyses provide a baseline of the composition of soybeans produced each year. A historical summary of soybean yields, protein, oil and total protein plus oil levels for U.S. soybeans are reported in the following table.

Historical Summary of Soybean Yield and Quality for Years 1986-2004(*)
Year Yield
(bu/ac)
Protein
(%)
Oil
(%)
Sum
(%)
1986 33.3 35.76 18.54 54.30
1987 33.9 35.46 19.11 54.57
1988 27.0 35.13 19.27 54.40
1989 32.3 35.18 18.73 53.91
1990 34.1 35.40 19.18 54.58
1991 34.2 35.48 18.66 54.14
1992 37.6 35.56 17.27 52.83
1993 32.6 35.73 18.03 53.76
1994 41.4 35.39 18.20 53.59
1995 35.3 35.45 18.19 53.64
1996 37.6 35.57 17.90 53.47
1997 38.9 34.55 18.47 53.02
1998 38.9 36.13 19.14 55.27
1999 36.5 34.55 18.61 53.16
2000 38.0 36.22 18.65 54.87
2001 39.4 34.98 18.97 53.95
2002 37.0 35.42 19.38 54.80
2003 34.0 35.65 18.66 54.31
2004 42.0 35.16 18.70 53.86
Average 36.0 35.40 18.61 54.01
Std. Dev. 3.6 0.44 0.53 0.66


(*) Note that protein and oil contents are adjusted to a 13% moisture basis.


The data for the 2004 crop year indicated yields and total soybean production were the highest on record due mainly to good growing conditions in most states. Protein, oil and protein plus oil were near the average for the nineteen-year period the sampling program has existed. Protein, oil and protein plus oil averages of 35.2, 18.7 and 53.9 were reported in 2004 compared to average values for the past nineteen years of 35.4, 18.6 and 54.0, respectively. The figure shows graphically the yield, protein and oil trends over the past nearly two decades.


The next table provides information on the yield, protein and oil values for the various states. There are no significant differences between states; probably due to the more-or-less ideal growing conditions for soybean in 2004. Some of the northern states had an early frost in some local areas, but this weather condition did not seem to affect the averages.

Soybean Production and Composition Data for 2004
Soybean Production

Std.
(Million
bu)
 
(%)
 
Sample
Protein
(%)

Std.
  Oil
(%)

Std.
 
Illinois
Iowa
Indiana
Minnesota
Nebraska
Missouri
Ohio
South Dakota
Arkansas
Kansas
North Dakota
Michigan
Mississippi
Wisconsin
Kentucky
Tennessee
Louisiana
Other
Total
482.65
477.05
276.93
259.20
223.25
217.36
203.32
139.06
126.00
110.70
99.09
69.65
63.57
54.25
54.18
47.20
33.17
170.23
3,106.86
15.5
15.4
8.9
8.3
7.2
7.0
6.5
4.5
4.1
3.6
3.2
2.2
2.0
1.7
1.7
1.5
1.1
5.5
100.0
 

248
297
138
115
111
65
78
54
25
30
33
27
19
19
6
10
6
38
1,319

34.87
34.97
35.94
35.02
34.62
34.67
36.26
34.31
35.56
35.30
34.90
35.79
35.23
35.77
35.48
34.95
35.90
36.50
35.16
1.54
1.39
1.35
1.60
1.33
1.22
1.48
1.35
1.55
1.35
1.40
1.37
1.63
1.16
1.06
1.64
0.98
1.54
1.53
  18.92
18.75
18.53
17.90
18.99
19.16
18.53
18.62
19.41
18.91
17.48
18.44
18.83
17.88
19.55
20.13
19.47
18.95
18.70
0.81
0.76
0.85
0.90
0.84
0.70
0.79
1.00
0.90
1.03
0.90
0.70
0.94
0.58
0.60
0.83
1.04
1.00
0.92
 

The following figure indicates that the soybean crop produced in 2004 will produce a 47.5-48.5 percent protein meal. This is important in making sure high protein meals are available to the feed formulator. The bottom line is that the 2004 season allowed for soybean growers to produce some recorded yields of soybeans of average composition. Now we look anxiously forward to the 2005 crop season…..


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Brumm, Thomas, Charles Hurburgh and Glen Rippke. 2005. Quality of the 2004 soybean crop from the United States. www.soygrowers.org